This article grew, as most do, out of the process of trying to answer questions, which, in this case, were raised by an Internet search on Pearl Harbor.

  1. Who was the naval officer in command at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941?
  2. Why is Admiral Husband E. Kimmel given no more than a few lines in most history books?

I found answers to both questions, the first is apparent, and the second is answered indirectly by the article. In addition, I tried to do most of the research using the Internet to see what sources are available. There are a lot, including a large number of primary sources and government documents.

There are a large number of block quotes with in-text citations in the article, usually this is a sign of a lazy author; the quotes are there for clarification in some cases, accuracy in others, and in the interest of justice.

I acknowledge the superb work of The Pearl Harbor Working Group and Pearl Harbor History Associates, and thank them for saving the record of Pearl Harbor at the Pearl Harbor Attack Hearings website, and making it available to all. Additionally, I thank Jake Jaekel, three of the personal accounts are from his website the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association, and are used by permission.

If anyone would like to use this article in their research, please email me.

John Keegan

May 2005